加拿大华人论坛 加拿大生活信息我为考试做小抄(不是)



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这学期有9门课,非常非常忙,这门课是哲学课,讨论康特的。同学整理了一些要点,我要贴在这儿,方便手机上随时翻阅复习。我也要打印一张,但是打印的纸容易丢。祝我考试顺利。

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Good will: As a human being, good will is touse your ability of thinking with reason to do good. Without a good will, oneis not worthy of being happy.



Nature: Difference between an animal(irrational) vs Human (rational).



Freedom: Freedom is not getting to do what youwant but recognizing the necessity of a law. To be free is to be subject to allthe laws of nature and the other laws of reason and morality. Freedom ischoosing to follow laws that you believe are necessary.



Reason: Reason is not to worry about theconsequences of our action. Reason can be used to think of the principles ofyour action. A will is using reason to think what you want to do. Reason allowsyou to act rightfully.



Happiness: Distinguishing morality from thepursuit of happiness. Happiness has no moral value. An action is not good orbad whether or not it makes someone happy or unhappy. It is good to be happybut it does not carry any morality. A bad person can be happy. Only a goodperson deserves to be happy. Only the principle of your action can make itright or wrong.



Consequences: The affects of my actions. Simplythe results of my action.



Purpose (intention) of an action: The thing youare trying to achieve. THE intended consequence. THE expected consequences.



Principle (rule) of an action: The rule thateveryone should follow. If the rule thatyou are following makes sense and would make sense if someone else follows it.What makes my action right or wrong is the principle of an action.



Duty: Some of the duties , you cannot use yourown life as a means to an end. Duty to pursue happiness: Duty is one of thereasons why you would take an action.



Acting against duty: Actions done that are justwrong.



Acting according to duty: Right Actions donebecause it is in their interest to do so.



Acting from duty: Actions that are done purelybecause it is the right thing to do.



Three propositions of morality:



Only an action done from duty has moral worth.An action gets its moral value not from the purpose of the action (intended consequence) but only from its principle (rule).Duty is being required to act a certain way out of respect for (moral) law.



Guilt: Kant says that I feel guilt when I dosomething against the moral law.



Respect: Respect is Kant's name for feeling orexperience of morality. How I feel in the face of the law. Respect is insomeway similar to fear and in someway similar to desire. You worry that themoral law conflicts with your desires. I am choosing to do the right thingwhich is why desire has something in common with desire.



Desire: Name for feeling or experience beingcompelled by our irrational self. When we see something we want , its desire.Desire and fear are the two sides of the same coin. If Duty overpowers desire,you are acting from duty but if desire overpowers duty, you are acting againstduty and the middle ground between the two is in accordance with duty.



Fear: When we see something that we don’t like,its fear. Desire and fear are the two sides of the same coin.



Morality/Moral law: The right thing to do.Morality only applies to rational beings. Morality has no "if"(conditions) to it. (BASICALLY EVERYTHING DISCUSSED HERE). The law that allowsyou to act rightfully.



Imperativesare commands just like morality.



Hypothetical imperatives: Also known asconditional imperatives. It says "Do this if you want this otherthing" Take an action if you want something in return. If the conditiondoes not apply to you, the command does not apply to you. The conditions arenot always spelled out . The "if" could be silent. Desire will pull you to hypotheticalimperatives.



Categorical imperative: Also the unconditionalimperative. It is a command of your morality that you have to follow even ifthere is no "if" or condition. Example : Give up your seat for anelderly. There might be not promised rewards or punishments but it is a command. (Always act so that the principle of youraction could be a universal law (without contradicting itself)). FOLLOWINGCATEGORICAL IMPERATIVES MAKES YOU RATIONAL. Dutywill pull you to categorical imperatives.



Self-contradiction: According to Kant, this isthe hallmark of irrationality. If you contradict yourself, you are irrational.When we act, we implicitly make a claim that THAT is how we SHOULD all act. Ifyou propose two contradictory actions, you are being irrational. Irrationality= Immorality. Example: Making a false promise to escape, (lie to escape),people stop believing in you and you lost their trust.



Things: Thingsare means to an end and have relative value (for us). Example: If you want tosit down, a chair would be of relative value to you. If you are a teacher(teaching while standing), a chair would have no relative value for you.



Means to an end:Kant thinks that when you are acting morally, you are doing the right thingbecause it is the right thing not for SOME PURPOSE. Things aremeans to an end and have relative value (for us). (meaningthey have absolute value). Quote "Hope is not the conviction thatsomething will turn out well, but the certainty that something is worth doing,no matter how it turns out" - V.Havel



End in itself/Persons: Peopleare not merely means to an end but ends in themselves. You could have yourgoals and things you are trying to achieve that is why other people are onanother level than that. Human beings are the source of the value. People canbe a source of value that is why they are of a greater value and an end inthemselves.

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